To regenerate European cities, urban transformation (like the redevelopment of brownfield sites or docklands) has become a powerful, but often also problematic strategy. Anticipating less public sector involvement, this project seeks to develop innovative development strategies and tools that promote and stimulate the collaboration of e.g. property owners, residents, retailers and companies in taking the initiative for urban transformation themselves. Examples of these strategies include business improvement districts and urban land readjustment. We call this the self-organizing city. The researchers will conduct experiments with planning practitioners and other stakeholders to investigate possibilities of international policy transfer within Europe, of successful strategies that are used in one country to be used in other countries as well.