The project analyses the interactions between urban form, economic welfare, energy use by and emissions from households and firms.

Increasing urban density and increasing city size tend to reduce households’ average energy consumption. However, increasing population density also tends to reduce local air quality. This trade-off as well as urban policies to stimulate the transition towards low carbon cities are subject of study. This is done by collecting data in four very different European cities – Amsterdam, Istanbul, Gothenburg and Barcelona – and by developing a spatial-economic equilibrium model that can be used for policy simulations. BREATHE engages policy makers and companies from the four cities


BREATHE – Urban form, location choice and transport solutions for low-carbon cities
: 2016-2019
Contact Dr. Steven Poelhekke
Budget: 606.718
Partners: Sabanci University (TR) Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (ES) VU University Amsterdam (NL) University of Gothenburg (SE)



Join JPI Urban Europe

JPI Urban Europe offers several possibilities to join, contribute and connect; e.g. by becoming a member, joining the stakeholders platform or sign up for our newsletter.



Please click here for the frequently asked questions we collected.
If you have an additional questions you are welcome to mail us at

European Union